Sociedad Peruana
de Cactus y Suculentas (SPECS)

The Peruvian Cactus and Succulent Society

Address: Aptdo. 3215, Lima 100, Perú
Phone 511 479 2360 Fax: 511 479 2630
President: Dr. Carlos Ostolaza, Editor of Quepo, Email:

SPECS is a non profit, non governmental association founded in 1987 whose aim is the study and conservation of Cacti and Succulents, focusing native (and indeed unknown) species. Our founder and now President, Dr. Carlos Ostolaza, edits a yearly journal, called Quepo (name of glochid in Quecha language), with more than 100 pages, very well illustrated, in color and B/W, featuring taxonomy, culture, field trips, research, art, philately and even poetry and ethnobotany, related to cacti and succulents. Our members meet monthly and we have lectures, slide projections, field trips and eventually, we make courses with overseas quests and the cooperation of local universities.

We have, for sale, the following issues of Quepo:

Vol.8,1994; Vol.9,1995; Vol.10,1996; Vol 11, 1997, Vol 12, 1998, Vol 13, 1999, Vol 14, 2000, Vol 15, 2001. Vol 16, 2002, Vol 17, 2003, Vol 18, 2004, Vol 19, 2005, Vol 20, 2006, Vol 21, 2007. Vol 22, 2008 and Vol 23, 2009.

A splendid present for yourself or a cactophile friend. An annual subscription ensures immediate delivery of copies to your home or business in perfect condition. América: US$ 18.00, through International Postal Money Order or Money Gramm or Western Union to Specs, Carlos Ostolaza Nano, Aptdo. 3215, Lima 100, Perú. It is possible also to send a Postal Money Order in US Dollars payable to Specs only from: Bolivia, Puerto Rico and the United States.

Europe: The yearly subscription rate: Euros 15.00 includes handling and surface mail charges. Contact with Lucio Russo, Email: , or with Mildred Canales, Email: for Belgium, France and Spain, our official dealers. Belgium, France, Spain, Chinese Republic, Japan and Switzerland can also send Postal Money Orders. The electronic version in DVD costs US$ 10.00 or Euros including handling and mail charges.

QUEPO 24 - 2010 Contents:

  • 1.1 Ethnobotany. Cactaceae of the Sacred Valley of the Inkas, Cusco, Peru. Alfredo Tupayachi. This article deals with how people use some cacti during some religious festivities in Cusco.
  • 1.2 Chemistry. Quantification of mescaline in cacti by chromatography. Mihail Cjuno et al. This is a new method to measure mescaline in Trichocereus by chromatography, digital scanning and image process.
  • 1.3 Cactus. Cactaceae, Succulents and other species from Moquegua, Peru. Daniel Montesinos. The author reviews the succulent vegetation between 3450 and 4690 m elevation in Sanchez Cerro province in the Moquegua region.
  • 1.4 Evaluation. Population status of Haageocereus tenuis (Cactaceae). Sidney Novoa et al. This is a survey done in 2004 to count the population status of Haageocereus tenuis in its only known habitat, north of Lima.
  • 1.5.Gardens. Xerophyticgardens in Lima Debora MacDonald. The author visited some Specs' members houses and comments about the advantages of growing succulents.
  • 2.1 Art. Carlos Revilla. Gabriela Arakaki. One of a dozen oil-on-canvas paintings depicting cactus in the unique style of this well known Peruvian artist is shown here.
  • 2.2 Philately. Cacti and Christmas. Cactofilico. Christmas is a good theme for postal stamps but its relation with some cactus flowering in December is questioned here.
  • 2.3.1 Literature. Alberto Rubio R Oriana Pardo. This Chilean poet offers us a short poem called «El Cactus» that Oriana Pardo graciously sent us for this issue.
  • 2.3.2 Literature. Luis de Rodrigo. Orlando Granda. In the last century an artistic current called Indigenismo developed in Peru and the poet Luis de Rodrigo, from Puno, wrote «Canción de amor de la Malika» related to a cactus species.
  • 3.1 Cactus. Two New Matucanas from Northern Peru. Graham Charles. These are the first descriptions, both in English and in Spanish, of Matucana oreodoxa subsp. roseiflora and M. paucicostata subsp. hoxeyi, recently found in northern Peru.
  • 3.2 Cactus. Cacti from Northern Peru. Debora MacDonald. This is a chronicle of a voyage through seven Peruvian regions during three weeks, seeing more than seventy cacti species.
  • 3.3 Cactus. Hylocereus sp. propagation. Faustiniano Saravia. This essay proposes to propagate Hylocereus sp. because its fruit has commercial value.
  • 3.4 Cactus. Xerophitic species from the Chancay Huaral basin, Lima, Peru. Meylin Vasquez. A survey and description of the main xerophitic species communities found in the lower part of the Chancay Huaral basin, north of Lima, identifying four important zones..
  • 4.1 Confidential. «Specstador» Specs' main activities during the second semester of the last year and the first semester of this year are described.
  • 4.2 Abstracts. English summary of all the articles of this issue.
  • 4.3 Books. Gymnocalycium. This book by Graham Charles, is an exhaustive review of this cactus genus from Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Paraguay and Uruguay and is beautifully presented in large format (28 x 21 cm) with more than 600 pages.

Cover Picture : Matucana oreodoxa (Ritter) Slaba
subsp.roseiflora subsp. nov. G.Charles

QUEPO 23 - 2009 Contents:

  • 1.1 Gardens. Cactus Garden 'Aniceto Arce': J. Pizarro et al. The authors visited this garden in La Paz, Bolivia and made this report of the cacti genera and species they found.
  • 1.2 Zoology. Cacti and Goats in Mexiico. Sandra Fernandez. The Peruvian biologist Sandra Fernandez studied the relationship between the goats and some Mexican cacti species as seeds dispersers.
  • 1.3 Chemistry. Mescalin content and ecology of Peruvian Triciocereus. Mijail Cjuno et al These researchers from Cuzco's University San Antonio Abad studied several Trichocereus specimens looking for mescalin content and they relate their results with the original place of the samples.
  • 1.4 Cactus. Cacti from the hills around Lima. Meylin Vasquez Lam The author visited the «lomas» in Carabayllo and Villa Maria del Triunfo around Lima city and this is a report of the cacti she found.
  • 2.1 Art. «Madre campesina.» «Craso» This well known oil-on-canvas painting by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros is shown here because of the cactus depicted.
  • 2.2 Philately. Peruvian endemicCactus. «Cactofilico» The Peruvian Postal Service (Serpost) issued a three stamps series depicting three Peruvian endemic cacti species reported here.
  • 2.3.1 Literature. Oral Literature. Orlando Granda. An example of popular, anonymous oral literature is compiled here, saving it for the future generations.
  • 2.3.2 Literature. «ElQuisco». Oriana Pardo. The Chilean teacher Jose Morales wrote this nice poem describing a cactus species that we reproduce here thanks to Oriana Pardo
  • 2.4 Report. Xll Conabot. Carlos Ostolaza. The twelveth Peruvian Botanical Congress took place in Puerto Maldonado, capital city of Madre de Dios Department in the Peruvian jungle. This is a report of that important meeting.
  • 3.1 Cactus. Haagespostoas. Carlos Ostolaza Nano. Intergeneric cacti hybrids are more or less frequent between Espostoas and Haageocereus. This is a report about these hybrids.
  • 3.2 Cactus. Cacti from Tumbes Province. Wilder Lozada. The author reports the cacti species found in this northern Peruvian province.
  • 3.3 Cactus. Botanic Nomenclature in Cactaceae. Aldo Ceroni. The importance and meaning of the scientific names applied to cacti is explained here with priority given to Peruvian species
  • 3.4 Cactus. Peruvian Cactus Seeds. Natali Ramirez. The author studied the morphology of seven Peruvian cacti species found north of Lima.
  • 4.1 Report. Cactus from Tacna. Jose Pizarro Neyra. This is a brief report of some activities related with cacti that took place in Tacna city, in southern Peru.
  • 4.2 Confidential. «Specstador» Specs' main activities during the second semester of the last year and the first semester of this year are described.
  • 4.3 Specs' Library. A list of the books and journals received by exchange of Quepo in the last year is presented here.
  • 4.4 Abstracts. Summary in English language of all the articles of this issue
  • 4.5 Revista de Libros. Cuadernos de Suculencia 2 Mr. Eduardo Carbonell has written a nice book dealing with the subfamily Sempervivoideae of the Crassulaceae family. It includes the six genera and the hybrids between them.

Cover Picture : Pygmaeocereus bieblii (Diers), 1995

QUEPO 22 - 2008 Contents:

  • 1.1 Ethnobotany. Agave and Pre-hispanic Cultures. ORIANA PARDO. The author makes a thorough review of the importance of the Agave species in the life of the ancient cultures of the New World.
  • 1.2 Zoology. The Cacti and the Andean Bear. JUDITH FIGUEROA Y COL. This is a report of the Peruvian cacti species that the Andean bear Tremarctos omatus includes in his diet.
  • 1.3 Chemistry. Trichocereus Chemical Phytogeography. CARLOS SERRANO The author states that only the Trichocereus species reported from the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes has mescaline and that those of the eastern slopes don't.
  • 1.4 Cactus. Two Matucanas from Cajamarca. NELSON PADILLA Y COL. The conservation status of Matucana huagalensis and a new habitat for M.aureispina, both species endemic from Cajamarca, are reported here.
  • 2.1 Art. Venancio Shinki. GABRIELA ARAKAKI. A nice oil on canvas painting depicting a cactus by a Peruvian artist is shown here.
  • 2.2 Philately. Sebastián. "CACTOFÍLICO". Two of the sculptures of the famous artist Enrique Carbajal, called Sebastian, are depicted in Mexican stamps and reproduced here.
  • 2.3.1 Literature. Washington Delgado. ORLANDO GRANDA. This Peruvian poet offers us a short poem called ((Cactus)), in the Japanese «hai-kai» style.
  • 2.3.2 Literature. Gabriela Mistral. ORIANA PARDO. This reknown Chilean poet lived several years in Mexico and there she wrote this poetic prose called «el órgano» the common name for Pachycereus marginatus.
  • 3.1 Cactus. Cactus from Jaén, Cajamarca. Joss--- Luis MARCELO PEÑA Y COL. This is a research about the cacti species in Jaén, Cajamarca, with a description of the genera, an identification key, distributions and threatened categories.
  • 3.2 Succulents. Succulent Peperomias. GUILLERMO PINO. This is a detailed report reviewing nine succulent endemic Peruvian Peperomia species are fully illustrated.
  • 3.3 Cactus. Cactus from Caraveli, Arequipa. FATIMA CACERES. The author sent us a report of the cactus found in Caravelí province, Arequipa Department, in southern Peru, with very nice pictures.
  • 4.1 Confidential. "SPECSTADOR" Specs" main activities during the second semester of the last year and the first semester of this year are described.
  • 4.2 Abstracts. Summary in English language of all the articles of this issue.
  • 4.3 Books. Peruvian Endemic Plants. BLANCA LEON & COL. A team of 42 Peruvian botanists collaborated to write this impresive volumen dealing with endemic Peruvian plants. A comment about the Cactaceae family is offered.

Cover Picture : Echinopsis pachanoi (Britton & Rose)
Friedrich & Rowley 1974, 'San Pedro'

QUEPO 21 - 2007 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary. "W", "X", "Y"and "Z". Latinlover Cacti and succulents genera and species beginning with the last letters of the alphabet and related words are shown here.
  • 1.2 Gardens. The Huntington Botanical Garden, CA, USA. Carmen Rosa.. The author has visited this garden several times and now she is reporting on the Peruvian cacti and succulent plants she found there.
  • 1.3 Gardens. The Royal Botanical Garden, Madrid, Spain. Rosario Muñóz. The author reports her visit to this garden with excellent photos of the plants she found there.
  • 1.4 Chemistry. Echinopsis schoenii. Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira and Carlos Serrano.. The authors made chemical analisis of this cactus species in several localities, looking for mescaline. This is the report of the results.
  • 2.1 Art. Roger von Gunten. Craso.. In 1992 this Swiss artist, living in Mexico, painted ((The nopal», with a lovely prickly-pear, with fruits.
  • 2.2 Philately. Echinocactus grusonii, Cactaceae. Cactofilico.. This cactus species has been the theme of postal stamps in several countries around the world. Cactofilico shows some examples here.
  • 2.3 Literature. Manuel González Prada. R.O.Granda. Salvador Novo. Craso. R.0.Granda sent us a poem called "Los cactus", written by Manuel González Prada, 40 years ago. Craso offers us a fragment of a poem called "Florido laude", written by Salvador Novo, in 1945.
  • 2.4 Botanical Illustration. Cacti from Mexico. A. P. de Candolle.. The Sessé and Mociño expedition (1787-1803) to Mexico, the subsequent fate of the findings and the copy of most of the plates, by the ladies of Geneva, Switzerland, is reported by A. P. de Candolle.
  • 3.1 Cactus. North of Ancash, Perú. C. Ostolaza. The author visited four provinces of Ancash Department, Perú (Santa, Huaylas, Corongo and Sihuas) and this is the report of his findings..
  • 3.2 Cactus. Sánchez Cerro, Moquegua, Perú. D. Montesinos.. The flora of General Sanchez Cerro province in Moquegua Dpmt, Peru, was studied by the author and this is a report of the cacti found there.
  • 3.3 Cactus. Cailloma, Arequipa, Perd. F. Cáceres et al.. The authors sent us the study of the cactus found in Cailloma province in Arequipa Department, in southern Perú, with nice pictures.
  • 4.1 Confidential. Specstador.. Specs' main activities during the second semester of the last year and the first five months of this year are reported here.
  • 4.2 . Abstracts.
  • 4.3 Book Reviews.. Two recent books "Zonas Áridas N° 10, 2006" a yearbook from the Center for Arid Lands Research, UNALM, Lima, Peru and this issue was devoted to cactus and succulents and "The New Cactus Lexicon" by D. Hunt et al. are reviewed here.

Cover Picture : Cleistocactus pachycladus (Rauh & Backeberg) Ostolaza 2002

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
Humor 15;
Quepostal 100,
Benefactor Members Information 99;
Quepo´s Subscription Form

QUEPO 20 - 2006 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary "U" and "V". Latinlover. Cacti and succulents genera and species beginning with the letters "U" and "V" and related words are shown here.
  • 1.2 Ethnobotany. San Joaquin market, Bahia, Brasil. O. Pardo. The author visited this market in Bahía, Brasil, searching for cacti and succulents and reports how some of them are used by the people there.
  • 1.3 Ecology. Cactus and Butterflies. R. Eastwood & R. Vila. The authors reported the butterfly Strymon jaqueline visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Neoraimondia arequipensis ssp roseiflora in northern Perú.
  • 1.4 Ecology. Cacti and Insects II. S. Novoa. This is the second part of an article devoted to insects related to cacti. It deals with the benefic insects like: bees, ants and moths.
  • 2.1 Art. Rufino Tamayo. Craso. In 1947 this great Mexican artist painted "The angry dog", now in the Art Museum of Philadelphia, USA. Back from the dog we can see a huge pirckly-pear, with fruits.
  • 2.2 Literature. Yolanda Westphalen. Craso. Mariano Iberico. R. O. Granda. On Quepo Vol 4, 1990, we published a fragment of the poem "el cactus" by Y. Westphalen, that now we are publishing it complete. The water-colour, as usual, belongs to Carmen R. Avendaño. O. Granda sent us a note called "el cactus", written by M. Iberico, 30 years ago.
  • 2.3 Philately. Epiphyllum, Cactaceae. "Cactofílico". This cactus genus has been the theme of postal stamps in several countries around the world. Cactofílico shows some examples here.
  • 2.4 News from Malta. J. Grixti. In the Maltese Islands there are two crafts related to cacti. One is a liquor made with Opuntia fruits. The other one is the assembly of Christmas cribs with the dried cladodes of opuntias.
  • 3.1 Succulents. Echeveria chiclensis, Peruvian succulent and varieties. G. Pino. The author makes a revision of Echeveria chiclensis and var. backegergii, Crassulaceae, analyzing its macro and microscopic morphology.
  • 3.2 Cacti of northern and central Perú 3. N. Calderón. This is the last part of a 3 weeks trip through eight Departments in northern and central Perú, with many cacti species. It goes in Spanish and English.
  • 3.3 Cactus. Opuntias in Maldonado, Uruguay. F. Muñoz, U. Eggli & R. Nyffeler. The authors give a complete description of Opuntia megapotamica and Opuntia arechavaletae, from Piriápolis, Dept. Maldonado, Uruguay.
  • 3.4 Cactus. Cactaceae of Yarabamba, Arequipa, Perú. F. Cáceres, L. Mariño & R. Aguilar. The authors report 6 genera and 9 cacti species from this area in Arequipa Province and Department.
  • 4.1 Confidential. "Specstador". Specs' main activities during the second semester of last year and the first months of this year are reported here.
  • 4.3 Book Reviews. Carmen Rosa. Two recent books "San Pedro & related Trichocereus species" by K. Trout and "100 Cactus Argentinos" by R. Kiesling & O. Ferrari, are commented here.

Cover Picture : Cylindropuntia rosea (De Candolle) Backeberg 1958

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
Quepostal 73,
Benefactor Members Information 102;
Quepo´s Subscription Form

QUEPO 19 - 2005 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary "T". Latinlover. Cacti and succulents genera and species beginning with the letter "T" and related words are shown here.
  • 1.2 History. Humboldt and the Peruvian Cacti. C. Ostolaza. Humboldt visited Peru between August and December 1802 and was the first to describe several Peruvian cacti species that are reviewed in this article.
  • 1.3 Succulents. The Nolanas, lomas" dwellers. P Puppo. The "lomas" have one of the most interesting floral associations composed mainly of ephemeral herbs like the Nolanas (Solanaceae). Here is a brief description of the genus Nolana L., with some succulent examples.
  • 1.4.Ecology Cacti & Insects I. S. Novoa. This article is devoted to insects associated with cacti. The first part deals with the harmful insects like: beetles, moths, bugs, lice, flies, crickets and grasshoppers.
  • 2.1 Arte. Diego Rivera. Craso. On Quepo Vol 5, 1991, we present a (1951) wall painting by Diego Rivera, called "El Maguey". Now once again we use the work of this great Mexican artist to illustrate our succulent gallery.
  • 2.2 Philately. Humbold in Stamps. Cactofílico. To round off the article about Humboldt and the Peruvian cacti, Cactofilico will comment on some commemorative stamps issued in his honor.
  • 2.3 Literature. Jerónimo Verduzco. Craso. Here is a fragment of a poem from the Franciscan friar J. Verduzco where a cactus is mentioned. The watercolor belongs to Carmen Avendano.
  • 2.4 Cacti and Handicrafts. H. & W. Ayala. Collecting the wood of dead cacti these creative craftmen transformed the wood into ornamental and useful objects that deserve to be promoted.
  • 2.5 Succulent Illustration 2. L. Russo. Here is the second part of an article dealing with the history of the artists who illustrated succulent plants in botanical books. It is written in Spanish and Enqlish.
  • 3.1 Corryocactus melaleucus Ritter emend. Ostolaza C. Ostolaza. In the original Ritter's description of this taxon the flowers, fruits and seed information was missing. In this article, the information is complete.
  • 3.2 Cacti of northern and central Peru 2. N. Calderón.This is the second part of a 3 weeks trip through 8 Departments in northern and central Peru that have many cacti species. It is written in Spanish and English.
  • 3.3 Cactus. "Rain Sticks" J.Roque, K. Ramirez. The "rain sticks" are made of cactus wood. A gentle sound similar to rain can be heard when shaking them. Some are exported. The article deals with the cacti species that are used to make the sticks.
  • 3.4 Cactus. Cotahuasi, Peru. A cactus paradise. E. Linares. In her visit to Cotahuasi, the author found two cacti species not reported before in the Department of Arequipa.
  • 4.1 Growers. Violeta Pazourova Carmen Rosa. Violeta Pazourova is a keen cacti and succulents grower from Praga. She send us some pictures of her admirable collection.
  • 4.2 Confidential. Specstador. Specs' main activities during the second semester of last year and the first months of this year are reported here.
  • 4.3 Book Reviews. E. Garcia. Two recent books "Cacti in Brazil" by K. Herm et al. and "Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names" by Urs Eggli & Leonard Newton are reviewed here.

Cover Picture : Corryocactus melaleucus Ritter.

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
Quepostal 15,
Benefactor Members Information 44;
Quepo´s Subscription Form

QUEPO 18 - 2004 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary "S". Latinlover. Cacti and succulents genera and species beginning with the letter "S" and related words are explained here.
  • 1.2 About monsters and fasciations. C. Ostolaza. A comparative review of the monsters in Literature and My thology with those in Cacti and Succulents.
  • 1.3 Ethnobotany. W. Piso and Brazilian Cacti. O. Pardo. Willem Piso (1611 - 1678), a naturalist and physician from Holland, visit Brazil for seven years studying the plants and local medical treatments and publishing them in some books. The author comments on the cacti described in them.
  • 1.4 Cactus Garden at UNALM. A. Ceroni et al. At the National Agrarian University La Molina (UNALM), in Lima, Perú, the Botanical Garden has now a small area dedicated to cacti. This is a report about that garden.
  • 1.5 Chirau-Mita, a Cactus Garden in La Rioia, Argentina. P Granillo. In La Rioja Province, northwestern Argentina, exists a cactus garden that is an example of what should be done to preserve and to show the local and introduced species to the visitors.
  • 1.6 SLCCS Meeting. C. Ostolaza. This is a report of the last meeting of the Latin American and Caribbean Cactus & Succulent Society in Guadalajara, Mexico.
  • 2.1 Art. Ricardo Flórez. G. Arakaki. Ricardo F1órez was an excellent Peruvian landscape painter and the only one using the pointillism technique in his painting
  • 2.2 Philately. Peruvian Cacti in Stamps. Cactofilico. The Peruvian Postal Service (Serpost) edited this year a three issues series depicting some Peruvian ornamental cacti. This article goes in Spanish and in English languages.
  • 2.3 Literature. Gabriela Mistral. Craso. Craso gives us a fragment of a poem related to cacti from the Chilean Nobel Prize winner Gabriela Mistral. The watercolour belongs to Carmen Avendano.
  • 2.4 Art in School. N. Calderon. Natalia Calderon in charge of Specs' Cultural Committee organized a drawing contest called "Paint a Peruvian Cactus" among some schools in Lima. Learn the results and the winners.
  • 2.5 Succulent Illustration 1. L. Russo. This is the first part of an article dealing with the history of the artists who illustrated the succulent plants in botanical books.
  • 3.1 Succulent Peperomias. G. Pino et al. Dr. Guillermo Pino et al. described three new succulent Peperomias from Cajamarca, Perú.
  • 3.2 A new species of Espostoa from Peru. G. Charles. Graham Charles et al. described a new Espostoa species from Utcubamba valley in Amazonas Dpmt, in northern Perú.
  • 3.3 Cacti of northern and central Peru 1. N. Calderon. This is the first part of a 21 days trip through 8 Departments in northern and central Peru, which saw many cacti species. This article is in both Spanish and English.
  • 3.4 Cacti of Yura, Arequipa, Peru. L. Marino et al.Yura is a district of Arequipa Province, having many interesting cacti species. This is the report about this valley.
  • 4.1 Growers. Dr. Guillermo Pino. Carmen Rosa. Dr. Guillermo Pino is a Peruvian plastic surgeon but also a keen cacti and succulents grower, and he tells us how to have nice and healthy plants.
  • 4.2 Confidential. SPECS activities. Specstador. Specs' main activities during the second semester of last year and the first semester of this year, are reported here.
  • 4.3 Book Reviews. E. Garcia. Two new good books "Cacti and Succulents" by Graham Charles and "Cacti, biology and uses" edited by Park S. Nobel are reviewed here.

Cover Picture : Espostoa utcubambensis G.J.Charles, spec.nov.

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
Quepostal 39,
Benefactor Members Information 103;
Quepo´s Subscription Form

QUEPO 17 - 2003 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary "Q" & "R" Cacti and succulents genera and species beginning with the letters "Q" & "R" and other words related are explained here.
  • 1.2 History 3. C.Ostolaza. The Chronicler Antonio de León Pinelo wrote in 1656 "The Paradise in the New World", trying to prove that this idyllic spot was in South America, near the Amazon river basin.
  • 1.3 Ethnobotany P.Alvarez & F.Cáceres The Churajó Culture, from the Arequipa Department in southern Peru, made the mortar to fix walls using cacti fragments and also as mordant to paint them.
  • 1.4 Ethnobotany O.Pardo The sixteen century chronicler Jerónimo de Vivar was the first one who wrote about the Spaniard conquest of Chile and the cacti they found..
  • 1.5 SLACCS Meeting C.Ostolaza. This is a report of the last meeting of the Latin American and Caribbean Cactus and Succulent Society, in Mexico.
  • 2.1 Art Craso Cecilia Fletcher is a dedicated Chilean srtist, living in Rome, Italy, and we are showing here her most recent works, related to cacti.
  • 2.2 Philately Cactofílico Malta Postal Servce edited last year a five issues series related to some new and rare cactus and succulent species. Here is a comment.
  • 2.3 Literature Craso This time we are including a poem related to cacti, from a Peruvian writer called Alberto Ballón Landa. The watercolour belongs to Carmen Avendaño.
  • 2.4 Succulent Literature Lucio Russo This is the second part of an article helping the readers to make the best choice when looking for books about cactus and other succulents.
  • 2.5 Peruvian Cacti A. Suchantke This is last part of a fine chapter of a book dealing with Peruvian cacti, with excellent ink drawings by the author.
  • 2.6 Art in School J.Pizarro One Specs' member organized in Tacna, in southern Peru, a school drawing contest called "Let's paint a Tacna cactus". This is a report of it and of the winners.
  • 3.1 Cactus M.Arakaki This is an excellent report of the Peruvian cactus genus Weberbauerocereus. It also deals with the molecular relationship of the genus with other cacti genera.
  • 3.2 Cactus J.Vega P. This important article deals with step by step micrograft techniques for cacti conservation, suitable for critically endangered species
  • 3.3 Ecology J.Pizarro This paper studies the environmental changes in relation to cacti species distribution in several coastal "lomas" in southern Peru.
  • 3.4 Useful Plants M.Cházaro Dioscorea remotifolia called "camote del cerro" in Mexico, is described here as a plant whose edible tubers are sold by street vendors in the Jalisco State.
  • 3.5 Ecology S.Novoa Several birds that eat cacti fruits and those that make their nests on columnar cactus or using spines for that purpose are mentioned in this article.
  • 4.1 Growers M.Caballero Ms. Carmen Rosa Avendaño de Ostolaza Specs' Board member and a keen grower, answers some questions about successful plant growing..
  • 4.2 Confidental Specstador Specs' main activities during the first semester of this year, are reported here.
  • 4.3 Book Reviews M.Caballero. Two new books, "The Cactus Family" by Ted Anerson and "Studies in the Opuntioideae" compiled by D.Hunt and N.Taylor, are reviewed here.
  • 4.4.Abtstracts. R.Douglas

Cover Picture : Weberbauerocereus winterianus

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
Quepostal 19,
Benefactor Members Information 109;
Quepo´s Subscription Form

QUEPO 16 - 2002 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary "P" Cacti and succulents genera and species beginning with the letter "P" and other words related are explained here.
  • 1.2 History 1. C.Ostolaza. The Jesuit priest Bernabé Cobo, the best seventeen century chronicler, wrote about plants in "History of the New World". Here are some examples related to cacti.
  • 1.3 Ethnobotany L. Piacenza & C. Ostolaza Cacti remains found at Cahuachi, the main Nazca Culture center (200 BC- 550 AD), gives us some light about their importance to these ancient Peruvians.
  • 1.4 Botany E. Retamozo This is an interesting Peruvian cacti pollen research done in Arequipa University (UNSA), in southern Peru, with an important finding on Opuntia soehrensii.
  • 1.5 Botany M.Arakaki. Information about how to storage, handling and transport of living material and how to prepare specimens for anato-mical, molecular, cytological or phytochemical studies.
  • 1.6 Conservation N. Calderon To know the number of cacti species and/or individuals, dead or alive, in a certain area is important as a starting point for future research projects. This is an example near Lima.
  • 1.7 BCSS Congress C. Ostolaza The BCSS Congress 2002 is reported here by Dr. Carlos Ostolaza, who was invited to participate and presented two lectures.
  • 2.1 Art in School N. Calderon Around a hundred school boys and girls from Lima participate in a contest, organized by Specs, called "Paint a Peruvian Cactus". Here are the results and the winners.
  • 2.2 Literature Craso As last year, we are including a wonderful poem from the Nobel prize winner Pablo Neruda dealing with a cactus.
  • 2.3 Philately Cactofílico The Peruvian Postage Service edited last year a six issues series related to endangered cacti species around Lima, with Specs collaboration. Here is a comment.
  • 2.4 Succulent Literature Lucio Russo To choose a book dealing with cactus and/or other succu-lents could be a difficult task if you are not sure what you really need. This article helps you to make a good decision.
  • 2.5 Peruvian Cacti A. Suchantke In a book about birds, there is a chapter where the author comments, in a fine style, about the cactus he found in a journey from the Peruvian coast to the highlands.
  • 3.1 Gardens Oriana Pardo This is the second part of a report about the Peruvian cacti you can find in the Hortobotanic Garden in Rome, Italy.
  • 3.2 Habitat Blanca Leon This is the story of a Sweden cactophile who visited very high and far places in Peru to see cacti in habitat.
  • 3.3 Cactus H-J. Wittau The author came to Peru trying to find the elusive Lobivia winteriana, not found again since its description in 1964, and he found it. Here is the report of his success.
  • 4.1 Specs´ Show M.Caballero. This is a report of Specs´ 2001 Cactus and Succulent Annual Show.
  • 4.2 Growers Carmen Rosa Ms. Rosa Campos de Gonzales, Specs´ Board member and a keen grower, answers a few questions about how to have nice and healthy plants.
  • 4.3 Confidential "Specstador" Specs´ main activities during this year are reported here.
  • 4.4 Book Reviews M.Caballero. Two new books: "Tephrocactus and other prickly pears" by M. Kiesling and J. Pöschl and "A Cactus Odyssey" by J. Mauseth, R. Kiesling and C. Ostolaza are reported here

Cover Picture : Weberbauerocereus longicomus

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
Quepograma 33,
Quepostal 55,
Benefactor Members Information 59;
In Memoriam 83;
Quepo´s Subscription Form 112.

QUEPO XV - 2001 Contents:

  • 1.1 Glossary "O" Latinlover Words and names related to cacti and other succulents beginning with the letter "O" are listed here, followed by a short explanation.
  • 1.2 History 1. C.Ostolaza. From the scarce reports about cacti, told by the sixteen century Chroniclers, we present some notes for the readers interested in historical or botanical subjects.
  • 1.3 Medicine P.Angulo et al. This preliminary study shows the protective effect of Opuntia flowers and stems on the intestinal mucous of rats suffering from indomethacin-induced enteritis.
  • 1.4 Chemistry V. Reyna P. The authors utilized a chemical procedure to extract mescaline from "San Pedro" (Echinopsis pachanoi), and tell us the way Peruvian folk-healers employ this cactus in their practices.
  • 1.5 Botany M.Arakaki. This manual which shows how to collect, manage and prepare herbarium specimens of cacti should be very useful for Biology students.
  • 2.1 Art "Craso" The Peruvian artist Ana María Pizarro, who illustrates Quepo´s literarian page, shows here other works of art.
  • 2.2 Literature "Craso" The Nobel prize winner Pablo Neruda wrote a beautiful poem dealing with a cactus that we reproduced here.
  • 2.3 Philately "Cactofílico" This superb Peruvian cactus called Matucana madisoniorum is the subject of a stamp edited last year.
  • 2.4 Botanists B.Leon. This paper reminds us of the arrival to Peru of Augusto Weberbauer a century ago and the cacti species he discovered and sent to F.Vaupel for their descriptions.
  • 2.5 Report C.Ostolaza. The 31st Conventión of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America is reported here by Dr.Ostolaza who was invited to participate and presented two lectures.
  • 3.1 Conservation C.Ostolaza. This paper deals with an unusual report about cacti conservation in a gold mine in the Peruvian highlands
  • 3.2 Habitat H.Sonnermo. This is the story of a Sweden cactophile who visited very high and far places in Peru to see cacti in habitat.
  • 3.3 Habitat H-J Wittau. The author is a German cactophile devoted to Lobivias who came to Peru to see them growing in habitat.
  • 3.4 Habitat F.Cáceres. An unforgetable journey, through six Peruvian Departments, searching for cacti is the subject of this amusing paper.
  • 4.1 Specs´ Show M.Caballero. A report of the last year cactus and succulent Specs´ show.
  • 4.2 Growers C.Avendaño. Dr. Ricardo Mendoza is a Specs´ member and a keen cactus and succulent grower. Some of his plants and ideas are shown in this report.
  • 4.3 Confidential "Specstador" Specs´ main activities during this year are reported here.
  • 4.4 Book Reviews M.Caballero. Two new books "Seed-diversity in the Cactaceae, subfam.Cactoideae" by D. Hunt and "Vygies – gems of the veld", edited by Cactus & Co., are reported here.

Cover Picture : Echinopsis backebergii

Plus Editorial 1;
Specs Information 2;
Specs´ New Members 4;
In Memoriam 13;
Benefactor Members Information 46;
Quepostal 51:
Quepo´s Subscription Form 111.

QUEPO XIV - 2000 Contents:

  • The Linnean Cacti 3 - C.Ostolaza We complete our review of the Linnaean cacti: Opuntia tuna; O.cochenillifera; O.curassavica; Epiphyllum phyllanthus; Pereskia aculeata and P.portulacifolia.
  • Glossary "N" - Latinlover We list cacti-and-succulent genera names beginning with the letter "N". Each one is followed with a short explanation.
  • Ethnobotany 7 - C.Ostolaza The Inka Empire knew and used several cacti like Echinopsis cuzcoensis and some Opuntia spp. They appear depicted on ceramic pots called "aribalos". There is also evidence of the use of Echinopsis pachanoi ("San Pedro") by the Inkas according to some Spanish chronicles.
  • Art - Craso The well-known Mexican artist Frida Kahlo created several artworks showing different cacti species. We present here some full color reproductions.
  • Literature - Craso The Peruvian poet Manuel Gonzales Prada wrote a love poem called "Oblivion´s Flower" in which he mentions cacti from the mountains.
  • Philately - Cactifilico The Sonoran desert, in a beautiful panel from the USA, was chosen by Cactofílico for this year issue of Quepo. It consists of 10 stamps showing resident flora and fauna species, including four cacti.
  • Gastronomy - F.Cacares et al. The Peruvian biologist Fátima Cáceres shows us how the fruit of Corryocactus brevistylus called "sancayo" could be used as a new agroindustrial resource.
  • Hortobotanic Garden, Rome - O. Pardo The ancient "Jardin Hortobotánico" in Rome is introduced to us by Ms. Oriana Pardo. The article is complemented with very nice pictures.
  • San Marcos Garden, Cajamarca, N.Cieza. Upon residents´ effort, San Marcos province (Cajamarca, Peru) is building a new public garden.
  • Cacti Fruits Chillon Valley - G.Vilcapoma We report six edible cacti fruits from the Chillon river valley (Lima): Armatocereus matucanensis, Cleistocactus acanthurus subsp. faustianus, Echinopsis peruvianus, Haageocereus acranthus, Melocactus peruvianus and Tephrocactus floccosus.
  • Aloe vera - M.Lopez Some features and uses of Aloe barbadensis are reviewed in this paper. This useful plant is known as far back as 3000 years ago.
  • Succulents - G.Lombardi We review Tumboa (Welwitschia mirabilis), perhaps the oddest of all plants due to its form, taxonomy and adaptation to the Namib desert has defied botanist´ imagination since its 1859 discovery. Also the 'Parque de las Leyendas' Botanical Garden (Lima), is presented as a protective repository of this vulnerable African species, where the first seedlings of tumboa in Peru are being successfully cultivated.
  • Lima's Cacti - G.Pino Lima native cacti, their rescue and successful cultivation at the "Parque de las Leyendas" Botanical Garden in Lima, is reported.
  • SPECS´ 99 Show Last November 1999 Specs held its C. & S. Show in Magdalena del Mar district, Lima. We interview architect Oscar Alvarado who was in charge of this show.
  • Growers - Carmen Rosa This time we pay a visit to Mr. Martin Pachas, owner of a nice cacti and other succulents collection, grown skillfully, both indoors and outdoors.
  • Confidential - M.Caballero SPECS main activities for 2000 are listed and commented
  • Book Reviews - M.Caballero María Caballero comments two recently published books on cacti: "Sacred Cacti" by K. Trout and "Cites Cactaceae Checklist" by David Hunt. Both are a reading must for those who want to be well informed.

Cover Picture : Oreocereus doelzianus forma calva

Plus: Editorial 1;
Specs´ Information 4;
Quepostal 24;
Benefactor Members Information 32;
In Memoriam 43;
Specs´ New Members 98;
Quepo´s Subscription Form 112.


  • Glossary "M": from Machaerocereus to Myrtillocactus. (Latinlover).
  • The Linnaean Cacti (2): review of 9 additional species. (C. Ostolaza).
  • Ecology: Biological control of cactus as weeds. (Carmen Rosa).
  • Etnobotany (6): Wari and Chimu Cultures. (C. Ostolaza).
  • Medicine (2): Hypoglicemic Opuntias (P. Angulo et al.).
  • Legends: Echinopsis pachanoi as a watchman. (Carmen Rosa).
  • Philately: Conservation through stamps in Mexico and UN. (Cactofílico).
  • Art: Leoncio Villanueva, "Variations...". (Craso).
  • Literature: Octavio Paz. "Himno entre Ruinas" (Craso).
  • Gastronomy: "Nopalitos" and other dishes. (L. Vigueras and L. Portillo).
  • Habitat: Ica. Field work at Ica valleys. (V.Castro & M. Mamani).
  • Succulents: Tillandsia usneoides "Spanish moss". (G.Lombardi).
  • Habitat: Arequipa. 19 cacti species around the city. (N. Zambrano et al.).
  • Cactus: Variability in Matucana species. (M. Williams).
  • Habitat: Chile. Pan de Azúcar National Park. (G.Lombardi).
  • Growers: Irene de Lombardi. (Carmen Rosa).
  • Confidential: SPECS activities during 1999 (M.Caballero).
  • Book Reviews: "Cactus" (Starosta); "Copiapoa" (G. Charles) (M. Caballero).
  • Abstracts: English summaries. (Anglosaxon).

Cover Picture : Disocactus amazonicus

QUEPO XII - 1998

  • Evolución : Deriva Continental, Clima y Evolución de los Cactus, (J. Mauseth).
  • Glosario "L": de lacteus a Lymanbensonia, (Latinlover).
  • Sistemática: Los Cactus de Linneo, (C. Ostolaza).
  • Habitat: El valle de Uctubamba, (G. Pino).
  • Religión: Aloes en la Biblia, (Carmen Rosa).
  • Filatelia: Aloes en Estampillas, (Cactofílico).
  • Cactus Peruanos: Rhipsalis del Perú, (F. Süpplie).
  • Arte: D maso Cassallo, "Músicos", (Craso).
  • Literatura: Silvestre de Balboa, (Craso).
  • Etnobotánica: La Cultura Moche, (C. Ostolaza).
  • Medicina: Opuntias Hipoglicemiantes, (P. Angulo).
  • Suculentas: Jardin Botánico en el Parque de Las Leyendas, (G. Pino).
  • Habitat: Cactus en Cañon de Cotahuasi, (L. Mariño y col.).
  • Cultivadores: Consuelo de Oblitas, (Carmen Rosa).
  • Confidencial: Actividades de SPECS, (M. Caballero).
  • Revista de Libros: (M. Caballero).
  • Abstracts: Resumen en Inglés, (Anglosaxon).

Cover Picture : Calymmanthium substerile

QUEPO XI - 1997

  • ANATOMIA X : Estructura Floral (J.Mauseth)
  • GLOSARIO 'I', 'J', 'K' : de Ibervillea a Kuehnrichiana (Latin Lover)
  • ECOLOGIA : Cactus y Animales (J.Pizarro)
  • HABITAT : Al Perú por las Lobivias (H.J.Wittau)
  • BOTANICOS : Candolle (Carmen Rosa)
  • FILATELIA : Rebutia Schmann (Cactofílico)
  • ARTE : Andrés Zevallos (Craso)
  • LITERATURA : Gabriela Mistral (Craso)
  • HABITAT : Cactus de Cajamarca y Saña (C.Ostolaza)
  • SUCULENTAS : Cnidoscolus tepiquensis (M.Chaàzaro)
  • ETHNOBOTANICA : La Cultura Nazca (C.Ostolaza)
  • HABITAT : Cactus de Colombia (G.Lombardi)
  • JARDINES : Arreglos y Jardines Miniatura ( Lombardi)
  • CONFIDENCIAL : Actividades SPECS (Specstador)
  • REVISTA DE LIBROS : Acabo de leer... (M.Caballero)
  • ABSTRACT : resúmenes en Inglés (D.Siva R.)

Cover picture Matucana fruticosa


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